Moral Obligation – Part 1 – Kant

The problem of scepticism1 The direction of thought following Descartes can be characterised as scepticism or questioning of all previously accepted authorities. It is reason alone that should be the final arbiter of what is right and true. For Descartes this raised the question of certainty in knowledge, thus setting the stage for the central […]

Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four and Hate Speech

I’ve just finished George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four, a dystopian vision of a totalitarian society. There are many connections that could be developed between Orwell’s portrayal and contemporary politics. I was struck however by the central role the language “Newspeak” plays in the story. We’re all familiar with the deceptive reversals of meanings employed by […]